Bismillah,

This topic is tightly related to my country, Indonesia, because in Indonesia you will easily see how the people conduct funeral procession, you will surprisingly see how the Indonesian people visit walisongo graves (the people who was highly meritorious to spread Islam in Indonesia) with a very large number visitors about hundreds even thousands people a day. Basically, Islam has a vivid laws about funeral procession, burial, etc. We can find it in Al-Quran and mentioned in Hadiths. But many people doesn’t known or still firmly hold to the belief of ancestors. Moreover, in Indonesia itself, there are animism and dynamism belief related to this topic.

baqi
Before, I continue my writing, Allah Azza wa Jalla said:

الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا ۚ
“…This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed my favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion…”[1]

Allah had clearly stated that Islam was perfect, all of the laws about everything related to Islam had been finished by the prophet shalallahu alaihi wassalam to this ummah. Especially about ahkamul janaiz, the laws about corpse, it is very clear in Islamic shariah although it has a differences in fiqh. But, unfortunately many people have intentionally or inadvertently fallen in Bid’ah to this issue.

For example,

a. It is Bid’ah to build mosque up in the graves
Especially, In Indonesia there are many mosque which is in mosque yard is built graves up even, it is located in front of mosque. That things is prohibited by Muhammad Shalallahu alaihi wassalam. He said:

لَعَنَ اللَّهُ الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَى اتَّخَذُوا قُبُورَ أَنْبِيَائِهِمْ مَسَاجِدَ يُحَذِّرُ مَا فَعَلُوا
“Allah was cursing the Jews and Christian because they have made their prophets grave as a mosque. Allah warned what they do.”[2]

b. Among the exaggerated attitudes to the graves is put on it a house or roof. From Jabir, He said:

عَنْ جَابِرٍ قَالَ نَهَى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ -صلى الله عليه وسلم- أَنْ يُجَصَّصَ الْقَبْرُ وَأَنْ يُقْعَدَ عَلَيْهِ وَأَنْ يُبْنَى عَلَيْهِ
“The Prophet shalallahu alaihi wassalam forbade for giving cement on the grave, sitting on top of the grave and giving a building over the grave.”[3]

c. Ceremonial of the death (also known in Indonesia as selamatan) is procession that usually held on day 7th, 40th, 100th. This event is done in order to send invocation together to the dying person in the grave. Then, in this event, the host serve various foods even with money (will be given to the guest after the event end). Related to this phenomenon, all of them are contradict with the hadith. Otherwise,It is sunnah that the neighbor must help the bereaved family for serving them food, etc. The prophet shalallahu alaihi wassalam said:

اصْنَعُوا لآلِ جَعْفَرٍ طَعَامًا فَإِنَّهُ قَدْ أَتَاهُمْ أَمْرٌ شَغَلَهُمْ
“Serve a meal for the family of Ja’far because they had been seized with matters which bring them to be busy.”[4]

d. It is prohibited to be wailing and screaming over the dead. Asy-syaikh ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullah said: “Niyahah is lament performed by men and women, but this is mostly done by women.” (Al-Qaulul Mufid ‘ala kitabit tauhid). The prophet strictly forbade this acts. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar reported that Hafsah cried when ‘Umar died and he said to her “Take it easy”. Don’t you know that the Messenger of Allah said:

“Verily the dead are punished in their grave by the wailing of their over them.”[5]

The dead will suffer due to the wailing of relatives in two cases:
1. When the deceased requested mourning prior to his death
2. If the deceased knew that it was the practice of the people and he did not request that they do not do so over him.[6]

The sins of niyahah will not be forgiven except by making true repentance. The virtues don’t eliminate its sins because niyahah is a major sins. Therefore a major sin will be abolished only by repentance. (Al-Qaulul Mufid ‘ala kitabit tauhid, 2/25).

e. It is Bid’ah to recite adzan while burying the dead person. Many people agree to recite adzan based on this hadith

لَا يَزَالُ الْمَيِّتُ يَسْمَعُ الْأَذَانَ مَا لَمْ يُطَيَّنْ قَبْرُهُ
“The corpse still hear the sound of adzan until the graves has not been plastered by soil”[7]

 

But Imam Ibnul Jauzi rahimahullah said:

هذا حديث موضوع على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم
“This hadith is not authentic, it is propped on behalf of Muhammad shalallahu alaihi wassalam” [8]

So, the conclusion, there is no argumentation that recommend to recite adzan while burying the dead person. It is obviously bidah.

Giving an advice is easy to say but is hard to do it. It is a true dilemma when we advise people about truth but we fell apprehensive regarding their comment, jibe, and taunt. Hence, Dawah need a good methodology and knowledge enough about what we will advise people.

Rasulullah shalallahu alaihi wassalam said:

يَسِّرُوا وَلَا تُعَسِّرُوا وَبَشِّرُوا وَلَا تُنَفِّرُوا
“Make it easy and don’t make it difficult, give a good news and don’t make the people run”[9]

Being patient is strictly required when we want to tell the truth about bidah in funeral procession, burial, etc. Moreover, many bidah which has been conducted usually come from the old belief. As we know, if someone want to counterattack the old belief with the truth, a resistance will appear as a rejection, even they maybe said, “It is the sunnah not bidah”.

There are a good ways to bring dawah easily to be accepted:
1. Find someone who has a good reputation and respected by the people, Inshaa Allah, if He/she advise them about this cases, it make the advices will be considered.
2. Give a book to the people related to this topic. by reading a book or article, it will make a viewpoint wider than before and it is expected the people can accept the truth.
3. Pray and ask Allah Azza Wa Jalla because Hidayah is belong to Him. We cannot make someone go to be guided or misguided.
Alhamdulillahilladzi bi ni’matihi tatimmush sholihaat, wa shallallahu ‘ala nabiyyina Muhammad wa ‘ala alihi wa shohbihi wa sallam.


 

[1] http://quran.com/5
[2] HR. Al-Bukhari (no. 435, 436, 3453, 3454, 4443, 4444, 5815, 5816) and Muslim (no. 531 (22)) from ‘Aisyah Radhiyallahu anhuma.
[3] Narrated by Muslim. 970

[4] Narrated by Abu Dawud no. 3132 and Tirmidhi no. 998. Shaykh Al-Albani said that this hadith is hasan

[5] Reported by Ibn ‘Umar and collected by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol.2, p.213 no.379

[6] Funeral Rites In Islam, Abu Ameenah Billah Philips: 2009
[7] Narrated by Ad-Dailami in Musnad al-Firdaus no. 7587
[8]Al-Maudhu’at, 3:238
[9]HR. Bukhari, Kitabul ‘Ilmu no.69


 

This is specially proposed to fulfill assignments in A summary of Islamic Jurisprudence

[Al-Mulakhash Al-Fiqhiyy] 

Deni Setiawan Abu Muhammad [ST 10031274]

Bandung, Indonesia